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Goallllllllllllllll !

In some countries, the announcement of a soccer goal is a very overblown undertaking.  Well, maybe you have to be “other-than-American” to NOT feel that way about pushing a round ball into a square opening with your feet.

The topic is what a coach should do, to motivate their athlete especially when the athlete is a youth archer.

The biggest problem is the parent.  Every child will nominally take their cue, frame their perceptions, from the alpha parent.  In sports that is usually the father or alpha “male” if a single-gender pair.  If the parent has experience with team sports like baseball, T-ball, football, Pop Warner, Soccer, etc. then they inevitably mark progress and count coup by wins, trophies, and vanquished foes.

This will lead to failure in archery.  Or at least, a pre-disposition to frustration.  Why?  Unless you want to set up a match where you are shooting AT your opponent, there are many complications to only judging excellence by whether you end up on the top step of the podium at your JOAD, your local, your state. your regional, or your national event.  Winning 1st at one of these events is certainly great, but NOT an endorsement of being the best “you can be”.

On the other hand, teaching the athlete that generating a consistent trail of “personal bests” is the best if not the only real assay of “gold” material.

Parents want to make a big deal of tangible assets like a trophy, naturally. It is a fun thing to hold!  And don’t deny that a trophy can form a positive element – but try to steer the parents (and thence the athlete) to valuing progress in personal bests over the singular momentary luck of the event.

Why?  ON ANY GIVEN DAY, any one of a large group of athletes MAY end up on the top step.  Just use Michele Frangilli, a truly world-class, record-holding archer for more than a decade or two, who went to the Olympics for Italy on numerous occasions, and finally prevailed to a team gold medal in London 2012.  On any given day Michele with his unique style can clean the clock of *any* competitor, but as with every other elite, can on any given day lose by as little as a millimeter distant to the center.  That is one element that makes olympic-style archery such a greatly exciting competitive sport.  And as London demonstrated, given just a little attention by the media, the public is captivated by the nature of the single athlete standing alone on the line to perform wonders. (or, ok, else a team of THREE doing the same :) ).

Back on track – If a parent is allowed to fixate an archer’s self-esteem to a piece of plastic trophy, then the archer will likely not achieve potential, nor retain the sportsmanship character that is so uniquely a part of target archery in this present-day reality.  The path to the top step involves many things, not the least of which is proper metrics for understanding self-excellence.  When was the last time you improved your personal best?  Remember how good that felt?  Help your athlete feel THAT.

Coach, keep it real.

Know The Bow. Teach The Bow. Tune The Bow.

If you want to really get to know a new bow well, or perhaps just learn more about the influence a given part of the modern recurve/Olympic bow has on the system then you might consider following the example of the military.

Most will know that the typical soldier is taught to completely dismantle and then properly reassemble a weapon, so often that they will dream about it and even do it blindfolded.  NOT suggesting anything quite so drastic for you or your archer, but as a coach you should do what I am about to suggest.  Once you have done it you may see the value in having your students do this, particularly those that are showing promise of becoming dedicated to the sport.  As I well know, the coach does not get to be there at the most important matches and it is coach’s duty to prepare the archer for those moments.  Knowing the bow and ALL of the components and how/why/when to change them effectively is crucial to reaching the top step.

Start with:  riser, limbs, served bowstring, arrow rest properly attached relative to the thickness of the arrow shafts, arrow shafts with nocks/points(no fletching), clicker if you will use one, and plunger.

Set the plunger to have no give, using Rick Stonebraker’s matchstick method, or else if it is a Beiter you can probably just tighten the spring down till it doesn’t move.  We want raw influence, no “buffering” by the spring that might lessen visual evidence.  Set the depth of the plunger to the skinny/shallow side, where it is just barely touching the side of the arrow shaft.  Set the brace height to a middle-of-the-mfr-spec, and set the tiller to zero.  Put the nocking point(s) to zero with a bow square.  These settings are going to wrong to some degree (we want that!), and you are going to set them right by shooting bare shafts (only) close enough to the bale to not miss it, but far enough away to allow the arrows to be in the air as long as possible.  You will want to pay attention to the symptoms, that is the way the arrows fly.  Minnowing up and down, porpoising left and right, wobbling because of excessive weakness, flailing because of a grossly high angle of attack from a really wrong nocking point, skewing due to the hugely wrong centershot, are the clues you want to see, and ultimately eliminate on your way to perfection.

Also you want to note the angle of the arrow in the target.  It will be off perpendicular, but with tuning you can make it less of an angle, and if you play your cards right, they will look just like fletching arrows!  With X10 arrows, the barreling causes enough aerodynamic influences that even at 70 meters an elite archer will find his way to the gold routinely, regardless of whether there are vanes on the shafts.

Let’s start with the premise, that a perfect tune for the archer’s technique will result in the energy from the bow pushing through the center mass of the arrow completely, yes, well, “perfectly”.  When it does that, it is a joy to witness, a knowledge of perfection for a brief moment.  The feeling every archer strives for, “YEAH, I did that…”.  When a bare shaft arrow porpoises, when it fish-tails, flails about, energy is being lost because it was injected off-center.  So tuning is bringing the elements to balance, to harmony, to reduce the energy wasted outside of the center axis of the arrow.   “Tuned”, the arrow behaves like a dart, and its flight is a beautiful thing of purity to behold.

SO!  With the plunger “off” and the tension on the spring 100% so it doesn’t give, the center shot off, the arrow will minnow left/right.  With the nocking point wrong, the arrow shaft will porpoise, up and down.  Fix the nocking point first because it is simplest.  For this exercise, use a tied-on floss nock, with sufficient tension so it can be rotated/screwed up and down the serving but stay set between shots.   Shoot, adjust, shoot, till the arrow no longer porpoises up and down, or at least, does so as little as possible.

Next, change the center shot gradually by moving the plunger deeper into the riser and pushing the arrow further from the riser.  As with the nocking point, you are learning the impact on the flight of the arrow this device has.  And as the minnowing decreases you know you are getting closer to the better center shot setting.  As it re-increases you know you have probably passed that point.

Through all of this you must decide each shot whether your release messed with the arrow too much and caused an energy diversion, or whether your release was as good as the tune at that point.  Do you see truth or artifact?  When you minimize minnowing, you might re-visit the nocking point position.

I was taught by the greatest coach I have ever met that tuning is like kneading dough.  Adjusting the nocking point in the right direction is like pushing a ball of dough down, which makes it (the arrow pattern) squeeze wider.  So you adjust the plunger, squeezing the ball taller, more vertical (the arrow pattern).  Working in the right direction you gradually end up with a round ball of dough (the arrow pattern) that is smaller than when you began.    The size of the ball at the end depends also on the spine of the shaft – a just-right spine’s doughball will be smaller than that of an arrow with too weak of a spine.  You ask about the too-stiff spine?  It will be smaller still but only when the release is perfectly consistent.  A too-stiff arrow will likely be unforgiving of an inconsistent release. And once you have fletchings on the arrow, a too-weak spine will be more at risk for hitting the bow particularly with inconsistent releases.  A slower release – stiff fingers – magnifies the flexing of the arrow, all other things being equal, resembling a weaker shaft – “dynamic” flexing.

Once honed to the best bare-shaft arrow behavior, the perfect plunger depth/center shot, the ideal nocking point (for that brace height/tiller), it’s time to start weakening the totally stiff plunger to find the best arrow flight again.

React to the arrow flight, the angle in the target, and the pattern of impact points on the target face.  Remember that you will need to make smaller adjustments – for example, you may find that moving the nocking point by a single serving thread diameter yields a profoundly better tweak to the group!

Remember that fletchings serve to average out the imperfections – in the arrow shaft.  The point weight/forward-of-center. The tune.  The release.  The wind.  By causing the arrow to rotate through 360 degrees continually, the vanes reduce the flaws.  They were critical when arrows were wood and vanes were feathers.  As long as the device loosing the arrow is human fingers, there will be imperfections that vanes can mitigate.

SO that begs the question, in a perfectly tuned compound bow shooting with no winds, why are vanes useful?  Well, a compound bow needs tuning as well.  I suspect that due to the built-in accuracy associated with a bowstring in tracks with a string-guide, with a magnified sight with a level, and yes, with a defined wall and a mechanical release, most compounders never learn to micro-tune and are unknowingly relying on the vanes to mitigate subtle flaws in the tune.

Doing the things I suggest will result in a much better awareness/knowledge of the bow, the arrow, and the relationship the archer has to both.  It may even result in better scores.

When Should You Make A Change?

At some point the coach is faced with the decision  – whether to make a change in the athlete’s form.

Aside from the “if you keep doing that you are going to hurt yourself” as a need to change, all other choices are optional.   There is rarely a critical “you HAVE to make this change or else…”, contrary-wise, I think a good opportunity to enhance technique exists ALL the time.

Notice the phrase.  “enhance technique”.  NOT “make a change”.  It is often to the athlete’s better interests for the coach to approach a desired end (a different way of doing something) in a less-obvious manner.

Look, I am all for being clear and loud and just saying what needs saying IF NEEDED.  Just realize that if you TELL the athlete you are making a change, you might be presenting your effort TOO forthrightly and actually distracting from the lesson.

“You are doing much better keeping your forearm in line with the arrow – I bet you are feeling much more power in your (lightly touch the lower trap) back, right?”  instead of, “Let’s see if you can make your string forearm get into alignment with your arrow.  Really move your scapula towards the spine during loading”.

Which impetus for change will be the best for any given athlete?  Only the coach knows for sure, and only then (perhaps) after trying both.

What? Oh, the title?  WHEN should you make a change?  Maybe I’ll be able to deal with that next time, if nothing changes…though if you are still really wondering, then this post probably missed its mark.

Flair!

“He’s plucking the string”.

There may not be a mis-diagnosis more common than that one.  A bystander will see the string hand fly out to the side, and assume plucking is the cause.  It is likely to be something ELSE.  Telling an archer to “not pluck” is poor coaching technique.

Rather than a true pluck (like plucking the string of a guitar), it’s more likely to be a combination of several common problems:

    1. The archer has far too much tension in the string forearm, making a relaxed release impossible.
    2. The wrist is cocked out because the string forearm is not nearly in line with the arrow.   In this case the archer can easily see the string elbow if using a mirror as the target.  Simple physics causes the hand to fly out from the jaw during the moment of release when muscles are relaxing.
    3. If the elbow is behind and in line with the arrow, the archer is “in alignment” more and there is no elbow to be seen in the mirror.  If the string arm is not put into alignment by the archer, the bow tends to try to do it during the release process.
    4. Because of the cocked wrist and excess tension in the forearm, the archer has a harder time of simply relaxing the string fingers, and is prone to making an active “letting go” effort which causes the fingers to go straight out after the string is loosed.  A relaxed release results in the fingers actually curling up, not sticking out like a porcupine.

Coaches, in plucking cases it is important to study the archer’s release with a tool like Coach’s Eye or a high-speed camera like a Casio Exilim.  Most archers know their string hand should end up behind and near the neck for followthrough and will MAKE the hand go there no matter how hard it is.  A camera will reveal that the string hand makes a detour out because of the physics and tension then goes back near the neck to where it should have gone immediately.

It’s NOT plucking, and telling an archer “don’t pluck” is worse than useless.  Get at the root cause of the hand flare and “plucking” will vanish.

Simple.

With any archer and particular with newer, less imprinted archers, there is a conflict – does one (coach) worry about where the arrow goes, or how it gets to go there?

Most NTS coaches will give lip service to “what happens on the line determines what the arrow does”.

When the arrow leaves the bow, what can the archer do to change where it goes?

Right.

Equally as strong, and extremely more important, is that the shooting of a bow is a result of a second, or 8, of effort.  If you can accept that from the moment an arrow is nocked on the string until it leaves the bow is a “shot cycle” then you can divide that time up into “steps”.   Like walking down the aisle to your wedding.  It’s a series of steps that leads to success or (unfortunately) failure.

That time can be divided into fragments, so let’s call them steps.  Pieces.  Parts of the pie.  a sum of the pieces.

In the National Training System (NTS) we must teach the archer to adopt techniques for a variety of steps that together make up a successful shot.

So when faced with a new archer where does the coach start?  With the ground.  Work from the ground up.  (now, I will admit to first always, dealing with any parts of the archer that might lead to either danger or injury)

Why?

In the NTS, Kisik Lee has demonstrated time and again that for say, step 5 to work easily and properly, the archer must have done step 2 in an excellent way.  To shoot an arrow in a best way, the archer must accomplish each preliminary step well in order to succeed in the most effortless shot cycle.

If you skip step 2, when you get to step 4 or 6, you cannot succeed in that step because step 2 set up failure.

For example, and there is no better graphic,  if you fail to place your bowhand on the grip with the meaty part of the base of the thumb just slightly to the inside of the centerline of the bow, then you cannot achieve a 45 degree angle of bowhand/bow riser, and you then cannot set your elbow into an easy vertical orientation.  If you cannot set your elbow vertically, you will then be unable to tense your tricep enough to hold the upper humerus into the shoulder socket assembly.  This would in turn adversely affect your draw length, your ability to smoothly CLICK, and your aim thereof.

If you allow an archer to skip proper foot placement or shoe choice, or knee locking, or butt tucking, or chest position, or hip rotation, then the archer will have trouble later on in the shot with succeeding in other parts of a shot cycle.

MANY times I see another coach trying to “fix” a problem they see, without understanding that the actual cause of that problem happened much earlier in the shot cycle.

Please, if you coach, do not speak when you first think to – do not assume you have the archimedes moment (EUREKA).  Instead, please assess whether what you are about to pronounce, is actually truth.  Accurate.  RIGHT.
It does no good to correct a bow shoulder problem if you do not first solve the posture of the archer.

In solving the posture the shoulder (or other downhill step) may actually take care of itself.  A chain reaction of benefits.  Remember the NTS is not a trophy nor an accomplishment, it is not a static thing.  It is DYNAMIC, a process in motion, always dependent on “what happened before” to achieve success in the end.  Skip a step and the archer will not succeed.

 

 

More Flow, Please

Returning to the subject of the book I mentioned on FLOW.

Learning *any* new skill in life is characterized by obvious clumsiness which decreases as the mind and body begin to agree about what needs be done.

It’s why we actually name an infant “a toddler” as she tries to stand, and then walk – she literally toddles about :)

Before too much time has passed, though, the toddler actually stands, perfectly still and in control and then for the rest of that child’s life, standing will be a completely unconscious accomplishment – easy to do without ever considering it.  The parents will be hard put to even recall how clumsy that toddler was in the beginning, so effective is the child’s brain at becoming adept – making the incredibly complex task of standing upright look smooth and easy, effortless.  Though I still remember my daughter’s look of “heyyyy” when she first locked knees and realized what she had done to her world view.

How many times have you watched an elite archer make a shot?  And of those times, how often could you have described it as “effortless”?  Most if not all of the time, if you are like me.  Effortless because they’ve learned to use only the muscles needed, no antagonistic muscles in the chest fighting against the trapezius for example, and also to enlist those muscles properly at the right time and in the right amount.  Finesse, Skill, Deliberate, Smooth, Powerful, Easy, Effortless, all words to describe what the elite athlete does.

So I am angling here to provide a GOAL of learning the parts of the NTS – as the archer gains a degree of mastery over the pieces, the coach must help the athlete to link them together into a smoother, more flowing series of movements.  Increase the flowing nature of calibrated movements in the human body.  You can’t just hope they do that, you must coach them into doing it smoothly and deliberately and efficiently.

The NTS draws heavily upon the human nature of movement. It optimizes the motions by enhancing the naturally skillful method of muscle contractions acting on the bones.  It relies on Archmede’s lever action because of how powerful the lever is. Mother nature put several superb levers in the body and used them to well, leverage power.

Also, there is no partial muscle contraction.  A muscle fiber is either tonic or atonic.  Contracted or relaxed.  Now, a “muscle” is composed of many thousands of muscle fibers, and through skill and training we learn to enlist a cascading increase of fibers when we want to grow strength, power, or speed gradually during a motion.  The untrained person will exert “a bunch of effort” and tend to fire off all of the bundles of fibers in a muscle yielding a crudely powerful contraction, kind of like lifting a heavy barbell in the clean and jerk.  Brute force, however, does not serve well in olympic target archery.  (It was great at Crecy and Agincourt, where quantity of arrows launched counted far more than accuracy of those arrows)

I feel coaches (should) speak of “purposeful practice” instead of praising the mere shooting of x number of arrows.  And as the archer grows in the skill of deliberate drawing (the cascading of muscle fiber activation in the correct tempo) and in the levering about the shoulder assembly by employing the middle and lower trapezius together with the LAN2 to achieve “holding”, the coach must encourage these separate things to be all one coordinated FLOWing of movement.

The goal is holding.  Getting there requires a calibrated cascade of contractions in the right muscle groups, a river of power flowing through the archer’s skeleton which is guided by the calm, focused mind of the archer.  I know I used cascade several times in the last few sentences – do you understand why?  Hopefully you are experiencing a cascade of understanding!

Encourage your athlete to merge the tiny steps of walking through the NTS shot process into a river of powerful flow and soon they will, well, make it look as easy as standing.  If they achieve the same level of mastery over the shot cycle, flow it all together, then they will be far more able to answer the stress of the moment and still make their own shot when it counts.

How do you get the athlete to “merge” the parts of the shot cycle? That depends on the athlete, I think.  I found using a metronome during one stage of development to be really helpful.  Verbally counting down with the stated conscious goal of continual motion was good.  Even, saying “MOVE MOVE MOVE”, could be a proper code word (Mnemonic) if properly defined to the athlete.   Or, “build, Build, BUILd, BUILD….” in a soft-to-louder manner might work better for one than another.  But hopefully you get the idea.

To get anywhere nowadays, the archer has to know how to merge into the flow of traffic.  Teach them that skill so they can make it look easy.

Going with the flow.

I’ve been posting clips from a book to my Kindle Amazon highlights file.  This book deals with the more esoteric aspect of coaching, MENTAL development.

If you read through this post, you’ll be rewarded with the name of the book and a link to it on  Amazon.

It’s normal for the archer to want to “work on” something everytime she shoots.  We all want to be better at what we do, and the physical aspect is right in front of the brain.  But if you are familiar with periodization, a means of physical training optimization, you may not have extended the concept beyond the physical.   I like that the notion deals with MENTAL periodization also.

Don’t just work on “something” every time you go out.  Set one day of practice out of every 7 that you shoot, to just shoot.  But instead of working on that release, or that transfer, holding, relaxed wrist, etc., you can choose to become complete null mentally.

Look, if you have been shooting for more than a few months, you have begun to myelinize your shot pathways.  It’s time for you to trust yourself and well, trust in the force, Luke.

Follow your normal shot mechanism conscientiously, carefully, till right before you go to the “up” position, (set to set-up).  When you have gotten to that point, you are ready to engage autopilot, and perhaps think of nothing in particular.  Emit a mantra, an “ommmmm” loud enough to hear between your ears.  Think of a polar bear in a snow storm.  Or, like one of the most successful female compound archers ever, visualize green legos.    Just don’t work on anything in the physical realm, think only of smoothness.  ease.  flow.

The goal is to relax and let your body take its course.  Disconnect from the desire to determine the results through force. Instead, learn how to go with the flow of your body’s natural abilities to complete the actions of delivering the arrow into the air.    Like visualization, going with the flow takes practice and clever desire.

The book?  ok, you’ve earned it…

Golf Flow  by Gio Valiente

Remember, as with several other excellent golf books you need to substitute the word golf with archery, ignore the sand traps, and think of how what he writes can apply to your particular desires to be a better archer/golfer.

PS: Are most archers practicing mental strengths, such as visualization?  Not so much.  Despite champions uniformly praising the skill development of visualizing as key to their success, I find it is amazingly difficult to persuade athletes to develop this skill. The students I coach that have given themselves over to this notion have become much happier with their abilities and performances.  In archery, the power of the mind will exceed the power of the body given a chance to do so.  This book in great part has mental strengths in well, mind.  :)   Well written, and I recommend it only for those who can trust in their mental force.

In times of pure stress and duress, when hitting the spider is the strongest desire in mind, allowing the subconscious to rule will win out, provided the athlete has laid the foundation for succeeding with flow by practicing the nothingness of the perfect unconscious release.  Wow, how zen is that?

It’s Not Either Or – Archery is not a zero-sum game

Archery is a sport.  For some it is also a way of life. Or at least a meaningful part of a “normal” life.

After 6 months of thinking on the role of sport, I’ve concluded that a critic was wrong back then.

The act of promoting archery cannot be to the detriment of archers.  I don’t mean “a rising tide lifts all boats” but that could also be true.

After a 5 year history of participating in several community archery events, a club president arbitrarily decided that it was not prudent to continue – it was “outside” of the normal functions as that person narrow-mindedly perceived the function of the club.  As a result, hundreds of kids from one event never got to touch a bow – their path through life remains duller, less enjoyable.  At the other event about 1000 kids did not get to learn about archery in college.  To me the loss is not calculable.

It is incredibly important that any opportunity to share archery is NOT ignored.  You deprive yourself as well as those that would benefit.

Look.  Archery.  You do it because ….??  If you view it as a job right now, think back to when you started.  That was because you … enjoyed it?  Why not help others to enjoy it as well?  As you share your insights, your knowledge, your sport, you learn more about yourself.  You become better by helping others.  So the next time you wear an archery-related shirt be ready to share the sport.  Heck, share the sport without the shirt (umm, do wear some kind of shirt, ok?)

Archery is a sport to be proud of.  You can be proud, you can share, and be a better person thereby.  No risk of diminishing yourself if you speak from the heart and are truthful.

Look Here.

Many of the topics I am moved to share thoughts on come from my students, primarily my college students. :)

When an archer has a miss (not “if”; as EVERY archer will have a miss) it apparently needs must involve some coaching to speed the process of retrieving the arrow(s).

The vast majority of normal missed shots will only miss the bale by inches, rather than yards.  (Not talking about missfires/shoot-through-the-clicker/letting-down-and-shot-anyway/triggered the release whoops early kind of events)

As such, the arrow will fall within a narrow cone or rectangle that barely is wider than the alley the bale sits in.  Yet time and again I’ll watch archers search 5, 10, or 20 yards to the side of the bale for the arrow which will almost certainly be found BEHIND the bale…Teach your archer to note mentally how the arrow missed. Was it to the side because the wind came up/quit right at release?  Was it on the plunger and launched OVER the bale?  It can make a great impact on the limited time we often have to work with the archer if too much time is wasted “in the green”.  And first, exhaust the possibility that it is within a narrow rectangle about the width of the darn target bale!  Only after that, go searching wider afield…

And teach them to go to the target, go ten or twenty feet further, and then take a sight on their scope’s tripod way back on the shooting line, so they have a sense of where the arrow traveled FROM and to….finding an arrow in the turf should not be rocket science and it should not take all day.

What Should I Buy First?

It is hard to know what archery gear to buy first!

A 25″ length riser is the standard size, and most archers use that and modify the length of the bow to accommodate their draw length by choosing either a short, medium, or long set of limbs.

It helps to know a fundamental aspect:  Bows are rated in resistance to drawing (aka, the “draw weight”) in pounds at a specific distance of draw, stated simply as “30 pounds at 27 inches”.
If you pick up a medium length bow (68″ total length of riser and limbs combined) that is rated at 30 pounds@27 inches, and if you draw it back to 28 inches, expect the draw weight on your fingers to rise to perhaps 32 pounds or so.  If you draw to only 26 inches, expect the draw weight to be less, say 28 pounds (or so).  The weight will always vary from limb to limb, as limbs are by nature NOT physically identical even when made by the same craftsman with exactly the same technique.  Just a fact of life.

The increase in weight beyond the labeled amount when drawing more than 27 inches is called “stacking” and varies widely between brands and levels of quality of limbs.  Cheap limbs tend to stack more, as do shorter limbs relative to longer limbs for a given draw length.  That is, a 68 inch bow consisting of a 27″ riser and short limbs will usually have more stack (and more limb tip lateral stability AND more vibration) than a 68 inch bow with a 23 inch riser and long limbs.
The reason why “stack” becomes clearer if you examine the modern recurve limb.  If you consider the cross section of the limb as you move from the base at the limb pocket out towards the string notch area/tip, you will see that the limb gets smaller (lighter per unit of cross-sectioned distance) the further out to the tip you look.

As you draw a bow back, the limbs bend under the energy you invest in them.  But the bending is not uniform, meaning the tip area (the “recurve”) bends differently than the limb nearer to the limb pocket.  The parts of the limb also move in different directions!  The tips move towards the center of the bow much more than the thicker base parts of the limb, which mainly moves towards the archer’s string hand.  It has a lot to do with leverage and angles.

Why such a long explanation?  It makes an incredible difference to the success of the archer, the choice of how to make the bow long enough.
1. Archer A shoots 5 days a week and has lots of time for cross-training, bulks up muscles and is very fit.  Archer A  LIKES the stacking effect as a way to get feedback the closer to click the arrow gets.  Archer A also thinks it is easier to make a good release with higher poundage, so to get that stacking feeling, a 25 or 27 inch riser with SHORT limbs is A’s choice.
2. Archer B is the same draw length as “A” but cannot maintain the same level of fitness and training effort.  Limb stacking for “B” makes it very hard to maintain excellent form through the click.  “B” needs to cast the arrow the same distance, but perhaps wants more control and feeling and less raw power, so less stacking is a good thing.  “B” therefore chooses a 23 or 25 inch riser with medium or even long limbs.  The limbs will be springier, not stressed as much, and the shot will have less short-frequency vibration (the “thunks” or “clanks”) and more long-frequency good vibration (the “strums”).  There will be less stacking, so the archer will get through click easier with the same amount of effort expended over each inch of drawing done  relatively speaking.  I view “B” as being closer to the sweet spot.
3. Archer C fears stacking and goes with a 27″ riser and long limbs, and ends up with a bow that is very easy (compared to “A”s and “B”s bows) to draw back to anchor and through click, as it never stacks.  But the bow is so long that the recurve part of the limbs never gets the same amount of deformation(stress) that happens in A & B.  The bow simply cannot cast the arrows as far as A & B’s bows would in the hands of archer “C”.
So depending on a lot of variables, there is “too short”, “just right with short/long”, “just right with long/short”, and “too long”.  YIKES.
Now you ask in frustration, “well how do I know what I need?”   Don’t panic and don’t assume you can’t get it right. As a beginning or even intermediate archer, you can get in the right ballpark and not even realize it could be better, because it will still feel great, such quality are the current products on the market compared to the bows of yesteryear!
A few general rules of thumb:
If you can afford it, buy the most expensive thing of each category and you will at least look good (until you shoot your arrows).
Otherwise, (and all of this is just one opinion – get several and decide for yourself…
For your first gear purchase, get the best riser you can afford, and get the cheapest limbs you can get by with in the general weight range you think you can handle.
After the riser and limbs, get the best sight you can afford.  A Sure-Loc can last you your lifetime.
Likewise, get a Beiter Plunger rather than a cheap one for the durability and especially the reliability.
These parts also are completely independent of your strength in drawing the bow and your skill level.
These are “one-time” purchases, as is the riser in all likelihood.  The two things that vary a LOT will be your limbs and your arrows so you want them last.
You should review the stabilizer market, and purchase something “not the cheapest” and “not the most expensive”.  Stabilizers need to perform some basic functions of mass/weight distribution and a LITTLE vibration absorption, and inertial resistance, and it is not rocket science so don’t pay for rockets, until you have the best everything else.
Adolescents who will grow will obviously need different length arrows.  Those archers who increase in strength through training and exercise and technique enhancement will also need different length as well as differently spined arrows (spine is the rigidity of the arrow and has huge impact on arrow grouping on the target and clearance).
BTW – never sell your old limbs – you may need to fall back to them if injured or if you make substantial form/technique changes.
I favor a shorter riser and longer limbs to achieve any given bow length yet there is a lot of flexibility in any chosen pairing of riser to limbs.  Eventually, you do want to buy the best limbs you can afford as well, because the more advanced limbs DO make an impact on you each and every time you loose an arrow.
Arrows come last because the riser and the limbs make the arrows behave a certain and different way.

Your technique, your fundamental method, makes your arrows behave a certain way.  During the initial learning phase, you are changing (hopefully!) so much that making an arrow investment is just not smart.  I consider Easton X10s an investment, and for many even ACEs are an investment.  Navigators and ACCs are a great balance of price and performance, many archers will never need to shoot anything more refined than Navigators or ACEs…Though X10s are the most shot-arrows at every Olympic since their introduction, and I recall a statistic that every medal in singles competition since they were first introduced has been taken with X10 arrows.  If you can afford X10s then certainly enjoy.  But first secure the best riser, limbs, sight, and plunger. THEN and only then splurge on X10s.

Lessor considerations:
Don’t use spinwings until you can (mostly) stay on the bale at your competitive distances.  Instead, start out with a durable vane such as the Easton or Arizona vanes, until you are shooting competitively. And before you switch fully, go half-and-half with a new kind of vane and compare your groups to make sure you are moving towards better.
Big arrows: Shooting indoors is pretty much what archers do when it is too cold to shoot outdoors, and for such short distances many archers feel they need a bigger arrow-diameter-to-target-size ratio to straighten out the arrow in a shorter time/distance, and they perceive an advantage to “line-cutting” score getting so they go with a FAT arrow.  Fat doesn’t matter so much indoors because there is rarely a cross-wind to blow the shafts sideways off of center target.  If you do choose to get a fat aluminum arrow for indoors, realize that you will have to re-tune/re-setup your entire bow and tune each season.
Unless you are headed to the world indoor championships, the Face-to-Face in Europe, or some such fancy hooraw shoot (that means the Vegas Shoot) where you absolutely must have every extra point AND you are not shooting at an elite level already, fatboys might be worth the hassle (and experience) of retuning frequently.  You might notice that most elite archers stay with their serious (outdoors) arrow, which requires only slight tuning adjustments for shooting at 18 meters instead of 70 meters.

Tuning?  Tuning is the adjustments to the bow’s physical parameters to match the way your fingers leave the string and your hand holds the bow and your arrows flex.  Pure and simple. No, not simple.  COMPLEX.  but that’s tuning in a nutshell – adapting hardware to the software(that’s you, archer) so that the pattern of arrows falling on the bale are as closely grouped as possible.  Tuning is a lot of fun, and is an ongoing challenge for the improving archer.  Some say tuning is never done.  Others tune once and then don’t make a change in their setup no matter what, till they can’t stand their performance any more and decide to “change up” everything.  Whatever.

I’ll end this with: “rarely will an archer shoot UP to his bow’s potential. The weakest link in the arrow delivery system is typically the grey matter.  But the effect of pride and excitement in one’s gear cannot be discounted – there IS a placebo effect.  Shiny gear helps you to believe in the force…and the force can be powerful indeed.
Ok, one more thought: give a man (or woman) a fish and he’ll eat for a day.  Teach her to fish, and she’ll feed herself forever.  Buy a bow and you can shoot an arrow.  Learn how to shoot that bow and you’ll hit what you aim at.  Another way of saying, investing money with a good coach is better than simply throwing money at your bow and flinging arrows in a sad hope of getting good at it.